The Factors Affecting Environmental Performance Index (EPI) in Selected OPEC Countries


1 Faculty of Economics and Social Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Faculty of Social Science, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran


Nowadays, conservation, maintenance and monitoring of natural resources according to estimated benefits and costs, plays an important role in economic growth and sustainable development. Economic development along with environmental protection, while preserving economic competitiveness by providing eco-friendly technologies, will prevent of loss and waste of environmental resources. One of the most comprehensive and complete environmental indicators which today used to provide a clear and comprehensive picture of environment in each country is Environmental Performance Index (EPI). Therefore, the main purpose of this study is investigation of affecting factors on environmental performance index in selected OPEC countries during the period 2000-2012 by using panel data approach. The results show that governance index, internet users and natural resource abundance index variables have positive and significant effect and openness and the carbon dioxide emissions per GDP have negative and significant effect on environmental performance index in selected OPEC countries. Also the coefficient of human development index (HDI) is positive and insignificant and value added of industry sector is negative and insignificant.


Abbaspour, M. (2007). Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development (1st Ed.). Tehran: Sharif University Press.
Alam, S., Ambreeen, F., & Muhammad, B. (2007). Sustainable Development in Pakistan in the Context of Energy Consumption: Demand and Environmental Degradation. Journal of Asian Economics, 18(5), 825-837.
Ang, J. B. (2007). CO2 Emission, Energy Consumption, and Output in France. Energy Policy, 35(10), 4772-4778.
Annual Report of Environmental Performance Index. (2013). Retrieved from
Auci, S., & Becchetti, L. (2006). The Instability of the Adjusted and Unadjusted Environmental Kuznets Curves. Ecological Economic, 60(1), 282–298.
Dahiya, B. (2012). Cities in Asia, 2012: Demographics, Economics, Poverty, Environment and Governance. Cities, 29(2), 44–61.
Dietz, T., & Rosa, E. A. (1997). Effects of Population and Affluence on CO2 Emissions. Ecology, 94(4), 175–179.
Fallahi, F., Sojodi, S., & Mamipour, S. (2012). The Effect of ICT on Environmental Quality. Environmental Economics & Energy, 1(2), 149-171.
Grossman, G.M., & Kruger, A.B. (1994). Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability. NBER, 6434, Retrieved from
Hausman, J. A. (1978). Specification Tests in Econometrics. Econometrica, 46(6), 1251-1270.
Huang, W. M., Lee, G. W. M., & Wu, C. C. (2008). GHG Emissions, GDP Growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A Revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis. Energy Policy, 36(1), 239-247.
Khalil, S., & Inam, Z. (2006). Is Trade Good for Environment? A Unit Root Co-Integration Analysis. Pakistan Development Review, 45(4), 1187-1196.
Kotov, V., & Nikitina, E. (1995). Russia and International Environmental Cooperation. In H.O. Bergesen, & G. Parmann (Eds.), Green Globe Yearbook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lindhjem, H., & Navrud, S. (2011). Are Internet Surveys an Alternative to Face-to-Face Interviews in Contingent Valuation? Ecological Economics, 70(9), 1628–1637.
Mirshojaeian Hosseini, H., & Kaneko, S. (2013). Can Environmental Quality Spread Through Institutions? Energy Policy, 56(C), 312-321.
Panayotou, T. (2000). Economic Growth and the Environment. Environment and Development Paper, Retrieved from
Roudi Fahimi, F., & Ashford, L. (2005). Investigating in Productive Health to Achieve Development Goals: The Middle East and North Africa. PRB (Population Reference Bureau), Retrieved from http: //
Talberth, J., & Bohara, A. K. (2006). Analysis Economic Openness and Green GDP. Journal of Ecological Economics, 58(4), 743-758.
Tisdell, C. (2001). Globalization and sustainability; Environmental Kuznets Curve and WTO. Journal of Ecological, 39(2), 185-196.
World Data Bank. (2013). Retrieved from