Arowolo, O. T., Lukman, A. F., & Ayinde, K. (2016). A Comparative Study of Some Methods of Handling Multicollinearity in Autocorrelated Error. African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Science and Engineering Series, 13(2), 68-72.
Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate Change Project (2011). National Adaptation Strategy and Plan of Action on Climate Change for Nigeria (NASPA-CCN), BNRCC. Retrieved from
CIA World Fact book. (2015). Algeria Economy 2015. Retrieved from
Cole, M. A., & Neumayer, E. (2004). Examining the impact of demographic factors on air pollution. Population and Development Review, 2(1), 5-21.
Druckman, A., & Jackson, T. (2009). The Carbon Footprint of UK Households 1990-2004: a Socio-economically Disaggregated, Quasi-multi-regional Input-output Model. Ecological Economics, 68, 2066-2077.
Engelman, R. (1994). Stabilizing the Atmosphere: Population, Consumption, and Greenhouse Gases. Population Action International: Washington, DC.
Hossain, S. (2012). An Econometric Analysis for CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, Foreign Trade and Urbanization of Japan. Low Carbon Economy, 3(3A), 92-105.
Jiang, L., & Hardee, K. (2011). How do Recent Population Trends Matter to Climate Change? Population Action International, 30(2), 287-312.
Jong-Chao, Y., & Chih-Hsiang, L. (2017). Impact of Population and Economic Growth on Carbon Emissions in Taiwan Using an Analytic Tool STIRPAT. Sustainable Environment Research, 27, 41-48.
Kaygusuz, K. (2009). Energy and Environmental Issues Relating to Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Sustainable Development in Turkey. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(1), 253–270.
Li, T., Wang, Y., & Zhao, D. (2016). Environmental Kuznets Curve in China: New Evidence from Dynamic Panel Data. Energy Policy, 91, 138-147.
Liddle, B., & Lung, S. (2010). Age-structure, Urbanization, and Climate Change in Developing Countries: Revisiting STIRPAT for Disaggregated Population and Consumption-related Environmental Impacts. Population and Environment, 31(5), 317-343.
London School of Economics and Political Science. (2013). National Policy on Climate Change: Executive, Mitigation and Adaptation Framework. Retrieved from
Lukman, A. F., &Ayinde, K. (2017). Review and Classifications of the Ridge Parameter Estimation Techniques. Hacetteppe Journal of Mathematics and Statistics, 46(5), 953-967.
Morales-Lage, R., Martinez-Zarzoso, I., & Bengochea-Morancho, A. (2006). The Impact of Population on CO2 Emissions: Evidence from European Countries. Environmental and Resource Economics, 44, 497-512.
Muhammad, S., Faridul, L., & Muhammad, S. (2011). Financial Development, Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from ARDL Approach for Pakistan. MPRA Paper, 43272, Retrieved from https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/30138/.
New Climate Institute. (2015). National Policy on Climate Change Nigeria 2013. Retrieved from
Olivier, J. G. J, Janssens-Maenhout, G., Muntean, M., & Peters, J. (2015). Trends in Global CO2 Emissions. 2015 Report, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, 1803, Retrieved from https://www.pbl.nl/en/.
Panayotou, T. (2000). Economic Growth and the Environment. Harvard University, Environment and Development Paper, 4, Retrieved from https://dash.harvard.edu/.
---------- (1993). Empirical Tests and Policy Analysis of Environmental Degradation at Different Stages of Economic Development. Working Paper WP238 Technology and Employment Programme, Geneva: International Labor Office.
Poumanyvong, P., & Kaneko, S. (2010). Does Urbanization Lead to Less Energy Use and Lower CO2 Emissions? A Cross-country analysis. Ecological Economics, 70(2), 434-444.
Qin, Z., & Xishe, P. (2012). The Impacts of Population Change on Carbon Emissions in China during 1978-2008. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 36, 1-8.
Satterthwaite, D. (2009). Implications of Population Growth and Urbanization for Climate Change. Expert-Group Meeting on Population Dynamics and Climate Change, UNFPA and IIED, 24-25th June.
Shi, A. (2003). The Impact of Population Pressure on Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1975-1996: Evidence from Cross-country Data. Ecological Economics, 44(1), 29-42.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (2015). Nigeria’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution, UNFCC. Retrieved from
Wang, S. J., Li, Q. Y. , Fang, C. L., & Zhou, C. S. (2016). The Relationship between Economic Growth, Energy Consumption, and CO2 Emissions: Empirical Evidence from China. Science of Total Environment, 542, 360-371.
World Bank. (2017). World Development Indicators. Retrieved from http:// www.databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=worlddevelopment-indicators.
Zhu, Q., & Peng, X. (2012). The Impacts of Population Change on Carbon Emissions in China during 1978 and 2008. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 36, 1-8.