Life Expectancy in Indonesia: The Role of Health Infrastructure, Political, and Socioeconomic Status

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Economics, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Banten, Indonesia.

2 Development Planning Agency at Sub-National Level, Banten Province, Indonesia.


Health development is an effort to fulfill one of the fundamental rights to access good health services. Life expectancy marks the success of development in the health sector. We carefully selected the determinants of life expectancy in Indonesia and collected data in 2010-2018. All 34 provinces in Indonesia were included as the unit of analysis. We use panel data modeling. We carried out a cluster analysis to develop an inter-provincial cooperation group in Indonesia. Life expectancy shows a strong correlation with GRDP per capita, immunization, mean years of schooling, and insurance. GRDP per capita being the strongest of all constructions. Rights, democracy, poverty, Gini index, dependency ratio, illiteracy, and breastfeeding harm life expectancy. Beds, resources, water, toilet, sanitation, and neonatal have a weak influence on life expectancy. The novelty of this paper is to incorporate the impact of health infrastructure development, political regime, and socioeconomic status, and the cluster of provinces that can increase life expectancy. Studies in full democracies prove that politics has a significant on life expectancy. However, this is not confirmed when Indonesia's democracy index from political rights aspects and institutions of democracy aspects is used to see its impact on life expectancy. This study may be the first to look at the effects of health infrastructure development, political regime, socioeconomic status, and clustering in 34 provinces in Indonesia. The results of this study may be helpful for policymakers, and efforts need to be made to ensure a healthy life and support well-being for all ages.


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