Iran's Export Potential to Brazil (2001-2018): Based on Conventional Indicators and Gravity-VEC Approach


1 Faculty of World Studies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty of Literature and Foreign Languages, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


The present study aimed to investigate the expandability of Iranian export to Brazil using both micro and macro-level approaches. At the micro-level, Iran's export that keeps pace with the Brazilian market were identified based on relevant conventional indicators including normalized revealed comparative advantage index, Cosine index and simple estimation of trade potential. Using HS two-digit data from 2001 to 2018, it is shown that Iran has an export potential to Brazil for some commodities. The impact of major macroeconomic factors on Iran's exports to Brazil is analyzed based on the gravity model and applying the vector error correction method (VECM). In the short-run and the long-run, the results confirm that Iran’s GDP, the joint population size of the two countries, air freight cost have a positive effect while Brazil’s GDP and Linder variable harm Iran’s export to Brazil. The ratio of the official exchange rate of Iran to Brazil has a positive effect in the short-run and a negative effect in the long-run. Brazil's membership in the WTO has a significant positive effect on Iran's exports to Brazil. While the impact of financial and nonfinancial sanctions on Iran's exports to Brazil is not significant. In summary, based on the macro-level indicators, the development of trade relations is logically justified. However, trade capacity between the two countries has not been realized in the given period due to political and international circumstances (not because of the lack of economic justification).


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